Snow drought is defined as period of abnormally low snowpack for the time of year, reflecting either below-normal cold-season precipitation (dry snow drought) or a lack of snow accumulation despite near-normal precipitation (warm snow drought), caused by warm temperatures and precipitation falling as rain rather than snow or unusually early snowmelt. (AMS Glossary of Meteorology)
Snow-dominated regions face several challenges due to snow drought and its impacts:
Summer Water Availability: Snow droughts reduce the amount of available water for spring and summer snowmelt. This, in turn, reduces streamflow and soil moisture, which can have impacts on water storage, irrigation, fisheries, vegetation, municipal water supplies, and wildfire.
Winter Water Management: Warmer winter storms lead to rain instead of snow at higher elevations in mountain regions that can create challenges for water management and flood mitigation strategies, particularly when dealing with extreme events.
Outdoor Tourism and Recreation: Many local economies and industries rely on snowpack and river flows from snowmelt to support their outdoor industries such as skiing, rafting, and fishing.
Ecosystems: Lack of snow can disrupt ecosystems over shorter and longer timescales.